You are correct that bouldering stimulates the development of max-strength, and through that, ultimately endurance. As a general rule, max-strength type efforts produce the best training effect when they are performed when the body and mind are fresh.
A common type of max-strength/power session done on the bouldering wall is called “Limit Bouldering”. A search of this term on Google will direct you toward websites that outline how to do it. Limit bouldering is basically the process of working a 3-7 (+/-) move boulder problem that is at or above your current ability, and taking long rests in-between. I won’t go into great detail about the protocol because it can be found by a Google search. Just note that workouts of this intensity should be performed when relatively fresh, so in general, limit bouldering is best performed no more than a couple of times a week, in conjunction with other longer duration efforts that target endurance either afterward or on subsequent days of the week.
Hope this helps.