I used to use ankle weights (in addition to weight in a pack) for weighted stair climbs, either for ME workouts or for Z1/Z2 aerobic workouts. The idea was to replicate weight-on-foot for splitboarding. Unfortunately I don’t have data on how my times/TSS (etc.) compared with and without weights.
I think that if you hike during the summer, you will anyway get some of this effect as hiking boots are typically *much* heavier than trail running shoes, though still less than skis + bindings + boots + socks.
I’d also be interested in hearing from the experts on this topic.