Hypertrophy is something to be avoided by climbers, runners, skimo and mountaineers in 99% of cases. Going to muscular failure is one of the best ways to ensure hypertrophy. That is very well understood and has been a staple of strength training for many decades. Another good way to increase muscle mass is using eccentric contractions under heavy loading.
In our general strength training we never suggest going to failure or anywhere near it for this reason. The one exception when we might suggest pushing to failure is in hand strength training for climbing.
The general strength period is a conditioning period to prepare you for the Max strength period.
The best mountain athletes are slightly muscled so that can have a high strength to weight ratio. These mountain athletes do not need exception strength levels (except rock or ice/mixed climbers) And the especially do not want to add any muscle mass Strength to weight ratio is what is important.
bear in mind that much of what comes from the strength and conditioning world is not direct at athletes and especially not at endurance athletes.